$|\Delta \mathcal{B}| =2$: A State of the Field, and Looking Forward--A brief status report of theoretical and experimental physics opportunities


The origin of the matter-antimatter asymmetry apparently obligates the laws of physics to include some mechanism of baryon number ($\mathcal{B}$) violation. Searches for interactions violating $\mathcal{B}$ and baryon-minus-lepton number $\mathcal{(B-L)}$ represent a rich and underutilized opportunity. These are complementary to the existing, broad program of searches for $\mathcal{L}$-violating modes such as neutrinoless double $\beta$-decay which could provide deeper understandings of the plausibility of leptogenesis, or $\mathcal{B}$-violating, $\mathcal(B-L)$-conserving processes such as proton decay. In particular, a low-scale, post-sphaleron violation mechanism of $\mathcal(B-L)$ could provide a testable form of baryogenesis. Though theoretically compelling, searches for such $\mathcal(B-L)$-violating processes like $\Delta\mathcal{B}=2$ dinucleon decay and $n\rightarrow\barn$ remain relatively underexplored experimentally compared to other rare processes. By taking advantage of upcoming facilities such as the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment and the European Spallation Source, this gap can be addressed with new intranuclear and free searches for neutron transformations with very high sensitivity, perhaps greater than three orders of magnitude higher than previous experimental searches. This proceedings reports on recent theoretical and experimental advances and sensitivities of next-generation searches for neutron transformations were detailed as part of the Amherst Center for Fundamental Interactions Workshop, "Theoretical Innovations for Future Experiments Regarding Baryon Number Violation," directly coordinated with the Rare Processes and Precision Measurements Frontier.

Enrico Rinaldi
Enrico Rinaldi
Research Scientist

My research interests include artificial intelligence and quantum computing applied to particle physics and quantum many-body systems.